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Some diseases and health problems involve processes that can only be studied in living organisms antibiotic for acne generic cephalexin 500 mg. Animals have a shorter life cycle than humans and as a result human antibiotics for dogs generic cephalexin 500mg line, they can be studied throughout their whole life span or across several generations bacteria that causes pneumonia generic cephalexin 750mg visa. In addition antibiotic used for kidney infection order 500mg cephalexin mastercard, scientists can easily control the environment around animals (diet, temperature, lighting), which would be difficult to do with humans. A variety of animals provide very useful models for the study of diseases afflicting both humans and animals. These include animals such as rats, mice, birds, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, fish, frogs, pigs, birds, dogs, cats, primates, among others. According to information from the Office of Technology Assessment it is estimated that between 17 and 23 million animals are used in research each year. Approximately 95% of these animals are rats and mice specifically bred for research and 4. Computer models, tissue and cell cultures, and a number of other non-animal related research methods are used today in biomedical research. Computer models are used to screen and determine the toxic level of a substance in the beginning of an experiment and tissue and cell cultures have become valuable additions to the array of research tools and techniques. For example, blindness cannot be studied in bacteria and it is not possible to study the affects of high blood pressure in tissue cultures. The nervous system, blood and brain chemistry, gland and organ secretions, and immunological responses are all interrelated, making it impossible to explore, explain, or predict the course of diseases or the effects of possible treatments without observing and testing the entire living system of an animal. In the meantime, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. What are some specific medical advances made as a result of using animals in biomedical research? The use of animals in biomedical research has allowed scientists to continue to discover innovative ways to treat and cure disease and illnesses. In addition, studies with mice have shown that the immune system can be stimulated by genetically altered tumors, leading to hopes that gene therapy can be used to fight cancer. This was approved in the late 1990s as the first new type of asthma treatment in 20 years that is effective against both mild and severe forms of asthma. These experiments allowed the disease to be transmitted from monkey to monkey, providing an invaluable model of the disease that could be studied. In the 1950s, after many years of research using mice, rats, and monkeys, polio vaccines were developed and used to treat the disease. The four mice treated with penicillin survived while the four untreated ones perished. This single experiment with just eight mice clearly defined the value of penicillin as an affective antibiotic that saves thousands of lives each year. Today, researchers know that even treating moderate cases of hypertension can reduce stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease. In fact, the same methods that have been developed to prevent and treat diseases in human have improved the lives of countless animals. More than 80 medicines and vaccines developed for humans are now used to treat animals. Animal research has helped develop many animal vaccines to fight diseases such as rabies and distemper in dogs and cats, feline leukemia, infectious hepatitis virus, tetanus, and has assisted in the development of treatments for heartworm. In addition, animal research has helped preserve nearly extinct species such as the California condor and the tamarins of Brazil due to new reproductive techniques being applied to endangered species. There are many other benefits to both humans and animals as a result of biomedical research.
Pharmaceutical representatives in academic medical centers: interaction with faculty and housestaff antimicrobial guidelines 2013 buy cephalexin 750mg. Attitudes of internal medicine faculty and residents toward professional interaction with pharmaceutical sales representatives antibiotic levo cheap cephalexin express. Self-servingSelf-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fc-biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fction? Conficts of interest and the case of auditor independence: Moral seduction and strategic issue cycling antibiotic 3142 order cheap cephalexin line. ValuingValuing thoughts antimitochondrial antibody cheapest generic cephalexin uk, ignoring behavior: the introspectionthoughts, ignoring behavior: the introspection illusion as a source of the bias blind spot. Objectivity in the eye of the beholder: Divergent perceptions of bias in self versus others. Residents’ perceptions over time of pharmaceutical industry interactions and gifts and the effect of an educational intervention. When pharmaceutical manufacturers’ employees present grand rounds, what do residents remember? Of principles and pens: attitudes of medicine housestaff toward pharmaceutical industry promotions. Interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and doctors in training: A thematic review. Several years—usually 10 to 15—and hundreds of millions of dollars later, under the best of circumstances, a new drug will be approved for marketing. Because of its complexity, drug discovery and development is widely recognized as one of the most fnancially risky endeavors in all of science and a major challenge for the biomedical industry. Much of this cost comes from failures, which account for 75 percent of the total research and development costs. Although these failures are disappointing and costly, they still contribute to the body of knowledge on disease processes. Academic health centers and research institutions play major roles in defning the targets applicable for small molecules and carrying out the clinical trials that are needed. The discovery and development process for therapeutic proteins or biologics is similarly long and diffcult, and success is far from certain. Biologics are derived from living sources, including humans, other animals, bacteria, and viruses. Academic health centers and research institutions have led the development of many biological agents, many of which have been successfully codeveloped with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Refecting this diversity, the path from idea to product development for medical devices can be quite variable and quite different from that for drugs and biologics. The same is true for the extent of collaboration among academic, industry, and government researchers. As is the case for drugs, obtaining premarket approval is a complicated process that can take many years. For complex medical devices, the research team may include physicists, materials scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, as well as biologists and physiologists. Physicians often play a critical role in defning the needs for devices and the initial testing of prototypes in human clinical trials. In some cases, the basic idea for important medical devices can come from individuals who are not involved in basic or clinical research. For example, the idea (and crude frst model) for a device to drain the buildup of cerebrospinal fuid in individuals with hydrocephalus came from a self-described mechanic who was the parent of an affected infant (Baru et al. The following sections briefy describe the sequence of events for smallmolecule drugs from concept to a marketed product. Figure E-1 (developed by the authors) depicts the process in graphic form for each of the following seven sections.
It is the design of the study itself antibiotics zoloft interaction cheapest cephalexin, whereas the research design also includes other parts which constitute the research process infection under toenail purchase cephalexin online. A faulty design results in misleading findings and is therefore tantamount to virus protection program discount 750mg cephalexin free shipping wasting human and financial resources infection 8 weeks after birth 750 mg cephalexin mastercard. In scientific circles, the strength of an empirical investigation is primarily evaluated in the light of the research design adopted. When selecting a research design it is important to ensure that it is valid, workable and manageable. Chapter 7 provides details about the research design most commonly used in quantitative and qualitative research. There is an enormous variety of study designs and you need to be acquainted with some of the most common ones. You must have strong reasons for selecting a particular design; you must be able to justify your selection; and you should be aware of its strengths, weaknesses and limitations. In addition, you will need to explain the logistical details needed to implement the suggested design. The construction of a research instrument is the first ‘practical’ step in carrying out a study. You will need to decide how you are going to collect data for the proposed study and then construct a research instrument for data collection. Chapter 9 details the various methods of data collection for qualitative and quantitative studies and the process of developing a research instrument. If you are planning to collect data specifically for your study (primary data), you need either to construct a research instrument or to select one that has already been constructed. The concepts of validity and reliability in relation to a research instrument are discussed in Chapter 11. If you are using secondary data (information already collected for other purposes), you will need to identify what information is needed and then develop a form to extract the required data. In order to determine what information is required, you need to go through the same process as for primary data, described above. Field testing (or pre-testing) a research tool is an integral part of instrument construction. As a rule, the pre-test of a research instrument should not be carried out on the sample of your study population but on a similar population which you are not proposing to study. If you are planning to use a computer for data analysis, you may wish to provide space for coding the data on the research instrument. The basic objective of any sampling design is to minimise, within the limitation of cost, the gap between the values obtained from your sample and those prevalent in the study population. The underlying premise in sampling is that a relatively small number of units, if selected in a manner that they genuinely represent the study population, can provide – with a sufficiently high degree of probability – a fairly true reflection of the sampling population that is being studied. When selecting a sample you should attempt to achieve two key aims of sampling the avoidance of bias in the selection of a sample; and the attainment of maximum precision for a given outlay of resources. There are three categories of sampling design (Chapter 12): random/probability sampling designs, non-random/non-probability sampling designs and ‘mixed’ sampling design. You need to be acquainted with these sampling designs – the strengths and weaknesses of each and the situations in which they can or cannot be applied – in order to select the one most appropriate for your study. The type of sampling strategy you use will influence your ability to make generalisations from the sample findings about the study population, and the type of statistical tests you can apply to the data. Step V: writing a research proposal Having done all the preparatory work, the next step is to put everything together in a way that provides adequate information about your research study, for your research supervisor and others. This overall plan, called a research proposal, tells a reader about your research problem and how you are planning to investigate.
Community forums are very similar to antimicrobial watches buy cephalexin 500mg visa group discussions except that these are on a bigger scale in terms of number of participants antibiotic mnemonics generic cephalexin 500 mg amex. Also antibiotic resistance and factory farming purchase cephalexin overnight delivery, in group discussions you may select the participants antibiotics for acne in pregnancy quality cephalexin 500mg, but for community forums there is self-selection of the participants as they are open to everyone with an interest in the issues or concerns. The researcher usually uses local media to inform the residents of a local community about the forums. For example, it is possible that a few people with a vested interest can dominate the discussion in a forum and it is equally possible that on occasions there may be very low attendance. Such situations may result in the discussion not reflecting the community attitudes. Reflective journal log Basically, this design entails keeping a reflective journal log of your thoughts as a researcher whenever you notice anything, talk to someone, participate in an activity or observe something that helps you understand or add to whatever you are trying to find out about. You can have a reflective journal as the only method of data collection or it can be used in combination with other methods such as interviewing, group interviews, or secondary sources. Other commonly used philosophy-guided designs There are a number of other approaches to research that have acquired recognition, in terms of design and name, in the research literature. While not designs per se, they do enhance a particular philosophical perspective in social research. These are: action research, feminist research, participatory research and collaborative enquiry. Strictly speaking, a piece of research within each of these could be either quantitative or qualitative, though by many they are considered dominantly as qualitative designs. The need to place them in a separate category stems from their prominence and possible use in each paradigm. For example, action research is guided by the philosophy that a piece of research should be followed by some form of appropriate action to achieve betterment in life or service, and feminist research is influenced by the philosophy that opposes and challenges the dominant male bias in social science research; it seems to believe that issues relating to women are best understood and researched by women alone. For participatory research and collaborative enquiry, the involvement of research participants or the community in the research process is the underlying philosophy. One of the important aspects of all these ‘designs’ is that they attempt to involve research participants in the research process. The research findings are then used to depict the current situation with respect to certain issues or problems and help to form a sound basis for strategy development to deal with them. Action research As the name suggests, action research comprises two components: action and research (see Figure 8. Research is a means to action, either to improve your practice or to take action to deal with a problem or an issue. Since action research is guided by the desire to take action, strictly speaking it is not a design per se. It is carried out to identify areas of concern, develop and test alternatives, and experiment with new approaches. Action research, in common with participatory research and collaborative enquiry, is based upon a philosophy of community development that seeks the involvement of community members. Involvement and participation of a community, in the total process from problem identification to implementation of solutions, are the two salient features of all three approaches (action research, participatory research and collaborative enquiry). In all three, data is collected through a research process, and changes are achieved through action. This action is taken either by officials of an institution or the community itself in the case of action research, or by members of a community in the case of collaborative or participatory research. An existing programme or intervention is studied in order to identify possible areas of improvement in terms of enhanced efficacy and/or efficiency.
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